Instructions

When submitting a paper, the author should always make a full statement to the editor about all submissions and previous reports that might be regarded as redundant or duplicate publication of the same or very similar work. If redundant or duplicate publi-cation is attempted or occurs without such notification, authors may face a prompt rejection of the submitted manuscript.

Acceptable Secondary Publication: The authors should receive approval from the editors of both journals; the editor concerned with secondary publication must have a photocopy, reprint or manuscript of the primary version. A suitable footnote on the title page might read: “This article is based on a study first reported in the (title of journal, with full reference)”.

Preparation of Manuscript: The text of observational and experimental articles is usually (but not necessarily) divided into sections with the headings Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion. Type or print out the manuscript on white bond paper, 216 x 279 mm (8.5 x 11 inches), or ISO A4 (212 x 297 mm), with margins of at least 25 mm (1 inch). Type or print on only one side of the paper. Use double spacing throughout, inclu-ding for the title page, abstract, text, acknowledgments, refe-rences, individual tables, and legends. Number pages consecu-tively, beginning with the title page. Put the page number in the upper or lower right-hand corner for each page. The articles should be submitted as a soft copy using a RW CD that must be accompanied by two hard copies on A4 size paper. The print must in double space. Authors should be certain to include a print-out of the version of the article that is on the disk; put only the latest version of the manuscript on the disk; name the file clearly; label the disk with the format of the file and the file name; provide information on the hardware and software used.

Title Page: The title page shall carry (1) the title of the article, which should be concise but informative; (2) the name by which each author is known, with his or her highest academic degree(s) and institutional affiliation; (3) the name of the department(s) and institution(s) to which the work should be attributed; (4) disclai-mers, if any; (5) the name and address of the author responsible for correspondence about the manuscript; (6) the name and address of the author to whom requests for reprints should be addressed or a statement that reprints will not be available from the authors; (7) source(s) of support in the form of grants, equipment, drugs, or all of these; and (8) a short running head or footline of no more than 40 characters (count letters and spaces) at the foot of the title page.

Authorship: Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. Authorship credit should be based only on (1) substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; (2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and (3) final approval of the version to be published. These conditions must be met. Increasingly, authorship of multicenter trials is attri-buted to a group. All members of the group who are named as authors should fully meet the above criteria for authorship.

Abstract and Key Words: The second page should carry an abstract (of no more than 150 words for unstructured abstracts or 250 words for structured abstracts). The abstract should state the purposes of the study or investigation, basic procedures (selection of study subjects or laboratory animals; observational and analy-tical methods), main findings (giving specific data and their sta-tistical significance, if possible), and the principal conclusions. It should emphasize at new and important aspects of the study or observations. Below the abstract, authors should provide, and identify as such, 3 to 10 key words. Terms from the Medical Sub-ject Headings (MeSH) list of Index Medicus should be used.

Introduction: State the purpose of the article and summarise the rationale for the study or observation. Recommendation when appropriate may be included.

Methods: Describe your selection of the observational or experi-mental subjects (patients or laboratory animals, including con-trols) clearly. Identify the age, sex, and other important charac-teristics of the subjects. Because the relevance of such variables as age, sex, and ethnicity to the object of research is not always clear, authors should explicitly justify them when they are inclu-ded in a study report. The guiding principle should be clarify about how and why a study was done in a particular way. For example, authors should explain why only subjects of certain ages were included or why women were excluded. Authors should avoid terms such as “race,” which lacks precise biological meaning, and use alternative discriptors such as “ethnicity” or “ethnic group” instead. Authors should specify carefully what the discriptors mean, and tell exactly how the data were collected.

Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturer’s name and address in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Give refe-rences to established methods, including statistical methods; provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known; describe new or sub-stantially modified methods, give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Identify precisely all drugs and chemi-cals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration. Reports of randomized clinical trials should pre-sent information on all major study elements, including the proto-col, assignment of interventions and the method of masking (binding). Authors submitting review manuscripts should include a section describing the methods used for locating, selecting, extracting, and synthesizing data. These methods should also be summarized in the abstract.

When reporting experiments on animals, indicate whether the institution’s or a national research council’s guide for, or any national law on, the care and use of laboratory animals was fol-lowed.

Statistical Analysis: The statistical methods are an integral part of the manuscript and should be reported as thoroughly as all other aspects. Descriptive part and test(s) applied should be clearly mentioned. The term n (italic, lower case) should only be used to refer to a sample of the whole eligible population, while N italic, upper case) should only be used when referring to the whole eligible population. Means should preferably be expressed as “mean (± S.D)” or “mean (± S.E.M) rather than “mean ± SD” or “mean ± SEM”. For non-parametric analysis median ± IQR or range should be given rather than mean. Percentages should be presented to one decimal place, following the numbers that generate them. For example when describing the data authors should use a format e.g. “17 patients (31.2%)…… or “patients who were diabetic (n = 17, 31.2%) ……” If statistical testing across multiple groups is carried out, then an appropriate post-hoc test should be applied, e.g. the Tukey test for multiple pairwise comparisons. If complex statistical models are being employed, then justification of the model choice is required. The use of specific terminology such as ‘random’, ‘significant’, ‘associ-ation’, ‘difference’ and ‘correlation’ should be reserved for their correct statistical context. The sampling method used in a study must be stated and any justifications for using it must be made. The term p for p-values should be expressed in italic lower case and should be reported to 3 decimal places, they should be expressed by stating the actual value (rather than p<0.05 etc) unless the value is less than 0.001, in which case p<0.001 should be used. When referring to non-statistically significant results, it is advisable to also provide the p-value, rather than simply stating “not significant” or “NS” or “p>0.05”. 95% confidence intervals (where applicable) should also be presented in addition to p-values.

Results: Present your results in logical sequence in the text, tables, and illustrations. Do not repeat in the text all the data in the tables or illustrations; emphasize only important observations.

Discussion: Emphasize the new and important aspects of the study and the conclusions that follow from them. Do not repeat in detail data or other material given in the introduction or the results’ section. Include in the discussion section the implications of the findings and their limitations, including implications for future research. Relate the observations to other relevant studies.

Link the conclusion with the goals of the study but avoid unqualified statements and conclusions not completely supported by the data. In particular, authors should avoid making statements on economic benefits and analyses.

Acknowledgments: List all contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship, such as a person who provided only general support. Financial and material support should also be acknowledged. Groups of persons who have contributed mate-rially to the paper but whose contributions do not justify author-ship may be listed under a heading such as “clinical investi-gators” or “participating investigators,” and their function or contribution should be described e.g,” “critically reviewed the study proposal,” “collected data,” or “provided and cared for study patients.”

References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which they are first mentioned in the text. Identify references in text, tables, and legends by Arabic numerals in parentheses. Refe-rences cited only in tables or figure legends should be numbered in accordance with the sequence established by the first identi-fication in the text of the particular table or figure. Use the VAN COURV style while writing the references as given below:

Avoid using abstracts as references. References to papers accepted but not yet published should be designated as “in press” or “forthcoming”; authors should obtain written permission to cite such papers as well as verification that they have been accepted for publication. Information from manuscripts submitted but not accepted should be cited in the text as “unpublished observations” with written permission from the source. Avoid citing a “personal communication” unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text. The references must be verified by the author(s) against the original documents.

Standard journal article. List the first six authors followed by et al. (Note: NLM now lists up through 25 authors; if there are more than 25 authors, NLM lists the first 24, then the last author, then et al).

Vega K. J., Pina I., Krevsky B. Heart transplantation is asso-ciated with an increased risk for pancreatobiliary disease. Ann. Intern. Med., 1996 June 1; 124 (11): 980-3.

More than six authors: Parkin D. M., Clayton D., Black R. J., Masuyer E., Friedl H. P., Ivanov E. et al. Childhood leukaemia in Europe after Chernobyl: 5 year follow-up. Br. J. Cancer, 1996; 73: 1006-12.

Organization as author: The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Clinical exercise stress testing. Safety and perfor-mance guidelines. Med. J. Aust., 1996; 164: 282-4.

No author given: Cancer in South Africa (Editorial). S. Afr. Med. J., 1994; 84: 15.

Volume with supplement: Shen H. M., Zhang Q. F. Risk assessment of nickel carcinogenicity and occupational lung cancer. Environ. Health Perspect, 1994; 102 Suppl. 1: 275-82. Volume with part: Ozben T., Nacitarhan S., Tuncer N. Plasma and urine sialic acid in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Ann. Clin. Biochem., 1995; 32 (Pt. 3): 303-6.

Personal author(s): Ringsven M. K., Bond D. Gerontology and leadership skills for nurses. 2nd Ed. Albany (NY): Delmar Publishers; 1996.

Editor(s), compiler(s) as author(s): Norman I. J., Redfern S. J., Editors. Mental health care for elderly people. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 1996.

Organization as author and publisher: Institute of Medicine (US). Looking at the future of the Medicaid program. Washin-gton: The Institute; 1992.

Conference proceedings: Kimura J., Shibasaki H., Editors. Recent advances in clinical neurophysiology. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress of EMG and Clinical Neurophy-siology; 1995 Oct. 15-19; Kyoto, Japan. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1996.

Conference paper: Bengtsson S., Solheim B. G. Enforcement of data protection, privacy and security in medical informatics. In: Lun K. C., Degoulet P., Piemme T. E., Rienhoff O., Editors. MEDINFO 92. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Medi-cal Informatics; 1992 Sept. 6-10; Geneva, Switzerland. Amster-dam: North-Holland; 1992: P. 1561-5.

Dissertation: Kaplan S. J. Post-hospital home health care: the elderly’s access and utilization (dissertation). St. Louis (MO): Washington Univ.; 1995.

In press: (Note: NLM prefers “forthcoming” because not all items will be printed). Leshner A. I. Molecular mechanisms of cocaine addiction. N. Engl. J. Med. In Press, 1996.

Journal article in electronic format: Morse S. S. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg. Infect. Dis. (Serial online) 1995 Jan. – Mar. (cited 1996 Jun. 5); 1 (1): (24 screens). Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/eid.htm

Tables: Type or print out each table with double spacing on a separate sheet of paper. Do not submit tables as photographs. Number tables consecutively in the order of their first citation in the text and supply a brief title for each. Give each column a short or abbreviated heading. Place explanatory matter in footnotes, not in the heading. Explain in footnotes all nonstandard abbreviations that are used in each table. For footnotes use the following symbols, in this sequence: Do not use internal horizontal and vertical rules; Be sure that each table is cited in the text. The use of too many tables in relation to the length of the text may produce difficulties in the layout of pages.

Illustrations (Figures): Submit the required number of complete sets of figures. Figures should be professionally drawn and photo-graphed; freehand or typewritten lettering is unacceptable. In-stead of original drawings, x-ray films, and other material, send sharp, glossy, black-and-white photographic prints, usually 127 x 173 mm (5 x 7 inches). Letters, numbers, and symbols should be clear and even throughout and of sufficient size that when reduced for publication each item will still be legible. Titles and detailed explanations belong in the legends for illustrations not on the illustrations themselves. Each figure should have a label pasted on its back indicating the number of the figure, author’s name, and top of the figure. Do not write on the back of figures or scratch or mar them by using paper clips. Do not bend figures or mount them on cardboard. Photomicrographs should have inter-nal scale markers. Symbols, arrows, or letters used in photo-micrographs should contrast with the background. Figures should be numbered consecutively according to the order in which they have been first cited in the text. For illustrations in color, ascer-tain whether the journal requires color negatives, positive trans-parencies, or color prints.

Type or print out legends for illustrations using double spacing, starting on a separate page, with Arabic numerals corresponding to the illustrations. Avoid abbreviations in the title and abstract.

Sending the Manuscript to the Journal: Send the required number of copies of the manuscript in a heavy-paper envelope, enclosing the copies and figures in cardboard, if necessary, to prevent the photographs from being bent. Place photographs and transparencies in a separate heavy-paper envelope.

Manuscripts must be accompanied by a covering letter signed by all coauthors. This must include (1) information on prior or duplicate publication or submission elsewhere of any part of the